LAUNCH SPECIAL: Receive A FREE Bottle of Ouro CoQ10

Want to Supercharge Your Energy, Sex Drive, Muscle Building, and Focus Even Faster?

Another Breakthrough In

In Male Aging Science

Hi,  this is Peter Monsen, Chief Science Officer and Co-Founder of Ouro Vitae.

And I have some huge news to share with you.

Today, Ouro Vitae is launching a brand new breakthrough formulation…

And it’s the single most important supplement to take alongside every glass of Mito Male.

It’s called Ouro CoQ10.

And you can receive a free bottle as a special one-time launch special… only available on this page.

You see, while Mito Male is the single most powerful formula available for restoring and optimizing male vitality…

A product that can help deliver …




Sex Drive





Rock Hard

Lean Muscle

…to any man that feels like he’s no longer performing at his peak.

There’s one powerful ingredient we had to leave out.

It’s a miracle of modern nutritional science that works hand-in- hand with the ingredients in Mito Male…

To supercharge the energy producing power of your mitochondria even faster.

I’m talking about a mitochondria-boosting, vitality restoring miracle ingredient … CoQ10.

Accelerate Your Results With Ouro CoQ10

You may have heard of CoQ10 before

Or maybe you already take it.

But what you’re about to learn will completely change everything you thought you knew about this supplement.
So much so… I wouldn’t be surprised if you threw your current bottle of CoQ10 in the trash.

First, I want to make this clear… CoQ10 is one of the most popular and researched nutritional supplements in history for good reason…Because it’s essential for healthy mitochondria.

Remember these are the “powerhouses” that create the energy every cell in your body needs to thrive.

And research shows…

If you have low levels of CoQ10, mitochondrial dysfunction skyrockets, and aging accelerates

It's No Wonder Research Shows

Supplementing with CoQ10 provides Extraordinary Benefits For Aging Men

Keeps Blood Sugar

In Check

Supplementation with 200 mg a day of CoQ10 reduces levels of hemoglobin A1c, the most important marker of blood sugar control.


Optimal Aging

CoQ10 directly influences the expression of multiple key genes involved in aging.


Heart Health

Just weeks of CoQ10 supplementation improves heart strength by enhancing mitochondrial performance.



In healthy subjects, 300mg of CoQ10 was shown to decrease fatigue levels by up to 33%.



By slowing damage from foreign invaders, CoQ10 is proven to reduce destructive toxins in brain cells.

CoQ10 Has Three Major Problems

#1 Extremely Sensitive to Oxygen, Light, and Heat

If exposed to outside oxygen, heat, or light CoQ10 spoils like a glass of milk left out overnight.  This is why it’s impossible include CoQ10 in Mito Male powder…


#2 Difficult For The Body To Absorb ​

CoQ10 is extremely difficult for the body to absorb because it’s not able to cross your gut barrier.  In fact, research shows less than 6% of regular CoQ10 makes it through your gastro-intestinal tract and into the blood.


#3 Too Big To Make It Into Your Cells ​

If…and that’s a big if… CoQ10 gets through your intestinal tract and into the blood stream… There’s still little chance it actually makes it into your cells where it can work it’s magic.

You see, CoQ10 is a massive molecule.

Trying to fit CoQ10 into your cells is like trying to park a school bus in a one car garage…
It just doesn’t work!


We Found The Solution

Introducing Ouro CoQ10

Our cutting-edge, absorbable CoQ10 formula that’s clinically proven to deliver up to 100% more CoQ10 directly to your cells.

This superior bio-availability is achieved through three unique mechanisms.



First, we take pure CoQ10 and combine it with tocopherols, a powerful and natural form of Vitamin E.

Tocopherols are a potent antioxidant and protect CoQ10 like a biological shield from heat, oxygen, and light.

That way you know you’re getting pure, in-tact CoQ10 ready to do its job.

vitamin e
softgel 1



Next, our CoQ10 is carefully encapsulated in a special soft-gel that dramatically increases absorption.

Inside this soft-gel are “transporting fats” that attach to the CoQ10 molecule and allow it to cross your gut barrier with ease.



Finally, we added d-Limonene.

Extracted from the oil of citrus fruits, d-Limonene is a natural solvent.

D-limonene breaks the large CoQ10 compound into a smaller CoQ10 molecule that can make it into your cells.

Then end result is one of the most bio-available CoQ10 products on the market.

In fact, in one double-blind, randomized, human clinical trial…


Scientists compared the effectiveness of Ouro CoQ10 versus standard CoQ10 in 30 healthy subjects over a period of 28 days.

By the end of the study, participants taking Ouro CoQ10 had up to 100% higher plasma levels of CoQ10 than the standard supplement!

Even better, Ouro CoQ10 starts working after the very first dose…

Boosting CoQ10 levels in the blood as high as almost 160% within just six hours!

Better CoQ10

Better Results

“I combine this with ALCAR and feel great. Clean energy – I don’t feel tired or need caffeine with this stuff on every other day type schedule. I love how the Vitamin E is also included so i don’t need to add that to my stack” – Kevin.**

“I didn’t expect this product to stand out from any other ingredients of my stack, but it blew the others out of the water. I notice an increased sociability, razor-sharp focus and I can more easily sustain vigorous exercise with minimal fatigue. These soft gels will be a permanent part of my regimen.” – Rachel**

“ I’ve tried a couple different CoQ10 products before and i had already read a lot about its overall benefits for mitochondrial health. but upon using this specific one for over 2 weeks now, I’ve already decided it is the one i am going to be taking on daily basis – Mohamad**

“Very nice quality and the price is right.” – Peter **

Supercharge Every Glass Of Mito Male

Just like Carnitine, CoQ10 levels in the body peak early in life…

Around age 20 for CoQ10.

After that, they decline for the rest of your life…

Plummeting 6-7 times lower by age 80. 

And just like Carnitine, CoQ10 plays a crucial role in maintaining your mitochondrial health …

Which is why we believe that every aging man can benefit from taking Ouro CoQ10 with Mito Male.

One clinical study showed that the combination of carnitine and CoQ10 was 200% more effective at lowering subjects cholesterol than carnitine by itself. 

Another study looking at max muscle output found that the combination of carnitine and Co10 outperformed carnitine by 60%.

How about the other ingredients in Mito Male like Shilajit…

When taken together, Shilajit is shown to skyrocket CoQ10 levels 29% higher than if you took CoQ10 alone!

Or how about PQQ.

While CoQ10 optimizes mitochondrial function, PQQ helps create NEW mitochondria…

Together, PQQ and CoQ10 are proven to help reverse age-related cognitive decline.
And it’s not just your mitochondria that benefit from CoQ10.

Just look at all the benefits you can expect when you start taking Ouro CoQ10.

Healthy Aging


A trial of 443 elderly people showed taking 200mg of CoQ10 a day over a 4-year period improved vitality, physical performance, and quality of life.


Heart Health

Aging men run into heart problems when the walls of their heart become abnormally thick, causing an irregular heartbeat and making it harder for the heart to pump blood.

Taking 200 mg of CoQ10 is shown to improve heart function, irregular heartbeat, reduce heart wall thickness.

Promotes Healthy

Blood Pressure

Numerous studies of people with high blood pressure have found that supplementing with CoQ10 reduces blood pressure to healthy levels.

In fact, CoQ10 can reduce systolic pressure up to 11% and diastolic pressure up to 12%.



Inflammation is a key factor in how well or not well you age. It’s connected to everything from joint pain, mental fatigue, to hair loss.

In a meta-analysis of 17 studies researchers concluded that CoQ10 reduced CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α – the major indictors of inflammation.

Keeps Blood Sugar

In Check

Out of control blood sugar leads to a problem’s like weight gain and fatigue.

A meta-analysis of 14 studies found that CoQ10 significantly reduces blood sugar (fasting and HbA1c) and insulin levels at doses of 200mg a day


Fountain Of Youth

Male fertility is determined by the number and quality of the sperm. Sperm cells rely on CoQ10 for the energy needed to move and for its antioxidant protection. 

A study of men found that taking just 60 mg a day improves sperm motility rate up to 450% more than the control group not taking CoQ10.



Research from UCLA suggests that the more muscle mass older Americans have, the less likely they are to die prematurely.

CoQ10 is shown to preserve muscle mass through its potent antioxidant power.


Liver Cleanser

Without a high-functioning liver, toxins and other dangerous invaders can make their way through the body…And wreck havoc on your cells, causing accelerated aging.

Taking 100 mg of CoQ10 a day is shown to decrease liver enzymes (AST and GGT), the two most important indicators of liver health.

THat's why we want to offer you

a FREE Bottle of the World’s Most Effective CoQ10 Supplement

We normally charge $39 for this advanced form of CoQ10 …

And considering the bio-availability and effectiveness of this comprehensive formula …

I consider that a bargain..

But because you’ve made the commitment to take back your health and become the best man you can be…

Today and today only, when you buy one bottle of Ouro CoQ10 we will throw in a second bottle for FREE.

We normally charge $39 for this advanced form of CoQ10 …

And considering the bio-availability and effectiveness of this comprehensive formula…

I consider that a bargain..

But because you’ve made the commitment to take back your health and become the best man you can be…

Today and today only, when you buy one bottle of Ouro CoQ10 we will throw in a second bottle for FREE.

That’s right…

You can get TWO bottles of Ouro CoQ10 for just $39 … 50% off the normal price!

Even better…

You can secure 2 bottles for just $79 …

Or 6 bottles for just $119. …

But this offer is only available right now on this page.

The majority of men who buy Mito Male are already taking me up on this offer.

And bottles of Ouro CoQ10 are literally flying off our warehouse shelves.

Plus, because of our commitment to quality, our FDA-approved facility is only able to produce Ouro CoQ10 in very small batches at any given time.

Which means we can sell out of at any minute.

Which is why I recommend choosing the 4 or 6 bottle option….

This guarantees you the greatest savings possible, and new customers won’t interrupt your supply going forward.

And no matter how many bottles of Ouro CoQ10 you upgrade to today…

They’re all backed by our…

100% Money Back Guarantee

When you upgrade your order with Ouro CoQ10 you don’t risk a single penny

Because you’re covered by our 30-day 100% money-back guarantee.

It’s important to us that money doesn’t come between you and the solution your mitochondria are crying out for.

So we want to make this easy.

If for any reason you don’t get the results, we’ve expressed over the trial period …

Simply return your EMPTY bottles of Ouro CoQ10 for a FULL, no-questions-asked refund.

Because the reality is:

If somehow Ouro CoQ10 fails to deliver the results we promise…

We don’t want to keep a penny of YOUR money.

The only question I have left for you is…

Do You Want Results Even Faster?

Like I said…

Mito Male is the single most powerful formula available for restoring and optimizing male vitality…

But if you want to take back your health, manhood, and vitality, even faster…

Then Ouro CoQ10 is a no-brainer.

It’s proven to:

And much more…

Plus, Ouro CoQ10 solves the biggest problem with CoQ10 supplements: ineffective absorption.

So you can rest easy at night knowing that your CoQ10 supplement is actually utilized by your cells…

And not a single dollar of yours goes to waste.

Not to mention…

You’re getting:

So don’t wait any longer…

Simply choose your bottle option below.

Choose Your Savings


Buy 1 Get 1






Buy 3 Get 3





Buy 2 Get 2




Your Questions Answered

Why do I need Ouro CoQ10 if I already take Mito Male?

Mito Male is undeniably the single most powerful formula in the world for restoring and optimizing male vitality. You can’t go wrong if Mito Male is the only supplement you take. However, many of our customers want to supercharge their energy, sex drive, muscle building, and focus even fast. Ouro CoQ10 works in perfect synergy to accelerate these types of results. 

Why isn't CoQ10 in Mito Male?

CoQ10 is highly sensitive to oxygen and is easily spoiled. This makes it impossible to include CoQ10 in a powder like Mito Male that’s mixed with water. 

What is CoQ10 and how does it work?

CoQ10 is a coenzyme that is essential for health mitochondria. Mitochondria are the “powerhouses” of every cell in your body. CoQ10 is one of the most important fuel sources your mitochondria uses to make energy.

What Makes Ouro CoQ10 better than other CoQ10 supplements?

Ouro CoQ10 solves the three biggest problems most CoQ10 supplements have by providing superior protection, enhanced absorption, and better cellular utilization. 

That’s that’s why clinical research shows the CoQ10 used in Ouro CoQ10 is up to 100% more effective than regular CoQ10. 

What's in Ouro CoQ10


How do I take Ouro CoQ10?

Simply take one softgel a day with food and water. 

Scientific References

1. Dai YL, Luk TH, Yiu KH, et al. Reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction by coenzyme Q10 supplement improves endothelial function in patients with ischaemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a randomized controlled trial. Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jun;216(2):395-401.

2. Mehrabani, S., Askari, G., Miraghajani, M., Tavakoly, R., & Arab, A. (2019). Effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on fatigue: A systematic review of interventional studies. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 43, 181–187. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2019.01.022

3. Dumont, M., Kipiani, K., Yu, F., Wille, E., Katz, M., Calingasan, N. Y., … Beal, M. F. (2011). Coenzyme Q10 Decreases Amyloid Pathology and Improves Behavior in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimers Disease. Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 27(1), 211–223. doi: 10.3233/jad-2011-110209

4. Mezawa M, Takemoto M, Onishi S, et al. The reduced form of coenzyme Q10 improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: An open label pilot study. Biofactors. 2012 Aug 8.

5. Hernández-Camacho, J. D., Bernier, M., López-Lluch, G., & Navas, P. (2018). Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation in Aging and Disease. Frontiers in Physiology, 9. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00044

6. Crowley D.C., et al. “Bioavailability and Health Effects of CoQ10 in Healthy Human Adults.” May 11, 2006.

7. Kalén, A., Appelkvist, E.-L., & Dallner, G. (1989). Age-related changes in the lipid compositions of rat and human tissues. Lipids, 24(7), 579–584. doi: 10.1007/bf02535072

8. Effects of carnitine and coenzyme Q10 on lipid profile and serum levels of lipoprotein(a) in maintenance hemodialysis patients on statin therapy. (2011). Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases. doi: 21368390

9. Vargiu, R., Littarru, G. P., Faa, G., & Mancinelli, R. (2008). Positive inotropic effect of coenzyme Q10, omega-3 fatty acids and propionyl-L-carnitine on papillary muscle force-frequency responses of BIO TO-2 cardiomyopathic Syrian hamsters. BioFactors, 32(1-4), 135–144. doi: 10.1002/biof.5520320116

10. Johansson, P., Dahlström, Ö., Dahlström, U., & Alehagen, U. (2015). Improved health-related quality of life, and more days out of hospital with supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 combined. Results from a double blind, placebo-controlled prospective study. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 19(9), 870–877. doi: 10.1007/s12603-015-0509-9

11. Adarsh, K., Kaur, H., & Mohan, V. (2008). Coenzyme Q10(CoQ10) in isolated diastolic heart failure in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). BioFactors, 32(1-4), 145–149. doi: 10.1002/biof.5520320117

12. Burke, B. E., Neuenschwander, R., & Olson, R. D. (2001). Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo- Controlled Trial of Coenzyme Q10 in Isolated Systolic Hypertension. Southern Medical Journal, 94(11), 1112–1117. doi: 10.1097/00007611-200111000-00015

13. Zhai, J., Bo, Y., Lu, Y., Liu, C., & Zhang, L. (2017). Effects of Coenzyme Q10 on Markers of Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Plos One12(1). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170172

14. Lewin, A., & Lavon, H. (1997). The effect of coenzyme Q10 on sperm motility and function. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 18, 213–219. doi: 10.1016/s0098-2997(97)00036-8

15. Preethi Srikanthan, Arun S. Karlamangla. Muscle Mass Index as a Predictor of Longevity in Older-Adults. The American Journal of Medicine, 2014; DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.02.007

16. Folkers, K., & Simonsen, R. (1995). Two successful double-blind trials with coenzyme Q10 (vitamin Q10) on muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease, 1271(1), 281–286. doi: 10.1016/0925-4439(95)00040-b

17. Farsi, F., Mohammadshahi, M., Alavinejad, P., Rezazadeh, A., Zarei, M., & Engali, K. A. (2015). Functions of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Liver Enzymes, Markers of Systemic Inflammation, and Adipokines in Patients Affected by Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 35(4), 346–353. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2015.1021057

Ouro Vitae, 2137 Mystic Cove Drive Virginia Beach VA 23455

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Our products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

©2020 Ouro Vitae. All rights reserved.

CoQSol-CF is a Registered Trademark of Soft Gel Technologies, Inc

** Experiences from CoQSol-CF users.

The information provided on this site is for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for advice from your physician or other health care professional or any information contained on or in any product label or packaging. You should not use the information on this site for diagnosis or treatment of any health problem or for prescription of any medication or other treatment. None of our statements or information, including health claims, articles, advertising or product information have been evaluated or approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The products or ingredients referred to on this site are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. You should consult with a healthcare professional before starting any diet, exercise or supplementation program, before taking any medication, or if you have or suspect you might have a health problem.

Mito Male Scientific References

1. Cavallini, G., Caracciolo, S., Vitali, G., Modenini, F., & Biagiotti, G. (2004). Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging. Urology, 63(4), 641-646. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2003.11.009

2. Malaguarnera, M., Cammalleri, L., Gargante, M. P., Vacante, M., Colonna, V., & Motta, M. (2007). L-Carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centenarians: A randomized and controlled clinical trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86(6), 1738-1744. doi:10.1093/ajcn/86.5.1738

3. Karlic, H., & Lohninger, A. (2004). Supplementation of l-carnitine in athletes: Does it make sense? Nutrition, 20(7-8), 709-715. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.003

4. Samimi, M., Jamilian, M., Ebrahimi, F. A., Rahimi, M., Tajbakhsh, B., & Asemi, Z. (2016). Oral carnitine supplementation reduces body weight and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Endocrinology,84(6), 851-857. doi:10.1111/cen.13003

5. Sahlin, K. (2011). Boosting fat burning with carnitine: An old friend comes out from the shadow. The Journal of Physiology, 589(7), 1509-1510. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.205815

6. Soczynska, J. K., Kennedy, S. H., Chow, C. S., Woldeyohannes, H. O., Konarski, J. Z., & Mcintyre, R. S. (2008). Acetyl-L-carnitine and α-lipoic acid: Possible neurotherapeutic agents for mood disorders? Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 17(6), 827-843. doi:10.1517/13543784.17.6.827

7. Miyagawa, T., Kawamura, H., Obuchi, M., Ikesaki, A., Ozaki, A., Tokunaga, K., . . . Honda, M. (2013). Effects of Oral L-Carnitine Administration in Narcolepsy Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Cross-Over and Placebo-Controlled Trial. PLoS ONE,8(1). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053707

8. Cristofano, A., Sapere, N., Marca, G. L., Angiolillo, A., Vitale, M., Corbi, G., . . . Costanzo, A. D. (2016). Serum Levels of Acyl-Carnitines along the Continuum from Normal to Alzheimers Dementia. Plos One, 11(5). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155694

. Fillit, H., & Hill, J. (2004). The Economic Benefits of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors for Patients with Alzheimer Disease and Associated Dementias. Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders,18. doi:10.1097/01.wad.0000127492.65032.d3

10. Miyata, M., Yoshihisa, A., Yamauchi, H., Owada, T., Sato, T., Suzuki, S., . . . Takeishi, Y. (2014). Impact of sleep-disordered breathing on myocardial damage and metabolism in patients with chronic heart failure. Heart and Vessels, 30(3), 318-324. doi:10.1007/s00380-014-0479-6

11. Lango, R. (2001). Influence of ?-carnitine and its derivatives on myocardial metabolism and function in ischemic heart disease and during cardiopulmonary bypass. Cardiovascular Research, 51(1), 21-29. doi:10.1016/s0008-6363(01)00313-3

12. Vescovo, G., Ravara, B., Gobbo, V., Sandri, M., Angelini, A., Barbera, M. D., . . . Libera, L. D. (2002). L-Carnitine: A potential treatment for blocking apoptosis and preventing skeletal muscle myopathy in heart failure. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, 283(3). doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00046.2002

13. Shadboorestan, A., Shokrzadeh, M., Ahangar, N., Abdollahi, M., Omidi, M., & Payam, S. S. (2013). The chemoprotective effects of l-carnitine against genotoxicity induced by diazinon in rat blood lymphocyte. Toxicology and Industrial Health,31(12), 1334-1340. doi:10.1177/0748233713491811

14. Chowanadisai, W., Bauerly, K. A., Tchaparian, E., Wong, A., Cortopassi, G. A., & Rucker, R. B. (2009). Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis through cAMP Response Element-binding Protein Phosphorylation and Increased PGC-1α Expression. Journal of Biological Chemistry,285(1), 142-152. doi:10.1074/jbc.m109.030130

15. Chowanadisai, W., Bauerly, K. A., Tchaparian, E., Wong, A., Cortopassi, G. A., & Rucker, R. B. (2009). Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis through cAMP Response Element-binding Protein Phosphorylation and Increased PGC-1α Expression. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 285(1), 142-152. doi:10.1074/jbc.m109.030130

16. Stites TE, Mitchell AE, Rucker RB. Physiological importance of quinoenzymes and the O-quinone family of cofactors. J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4):719-27
17. Steinberg, F., Stites, T. E., Anderson, P., Storms, D., Chan, I., Eghbali, S., & Rucker, R. (2003). Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Improves Growth and Reproductive Performance in Mice Fed Chemically Defined Diets. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 228(2), 160-166. doi:10.1177/153537020322800205

18. Biswas, T. K., Pandit, S., Mondal, S., Biswas, S. K., Jana, U., Ghosh, T., . . . Auddy, B. (2010). Clinical evaluation of spermatogenic activity of processed Shilajit in oligospermia. Andrologia,42(1), 48-56. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0272.2009.00956.x

19. Surapaneni, D. K., Adapa, S. R., Preeti, K., Teja, G. R., Veeraragavan, M., & Krishnamurthy, S. (2012). Shilajit attenuates behavioral symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome by modulating the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and mitochondrial bioenergetics in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 143(1), 91-99. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.06.002

20. Chang, C. S., Choi, J. B., Kim, H. J., & Park, S. B. (2011). Correlation Between Serum Testosterone Level and Concentrations of Copper and Zinc in Hair Tissue. Biological Trace Element Research,144(1-3), 264-271. doi:10.1007/s12011-011-9085-y

21. Plasma Steroid-Binding Proteins in Tumour Diseases. (1984). Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 371-380. doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-033239-0.50032-6